its capacity for bickering and brawling does the exiled establishment conform to the stereotype presented by former historians. Nathalie Genet- Rouffiac goes on to analyse the community of exiles in France up to 1715, presenting the curious portrait of one which was 60 per cent Irish, 35 per cent English and only 5 per cent Scottish, but led by a court which was largely English in complexion, with Scots playing a leading role. Almost half the community consisted of aristocrats, and almost half was female, illustrating that the Jacobite exile was 'a familial one'. The cumulative import of these three writers is to demonstrate that the impact of the Jacobite refugees upon France was considerably greater than that of the Huguenot refugees upon England. After that the essays diverge rapidly in their focus, and a selection must suffice to illustrate the range. Roger Schmidt reveals that 'Whig history' literally did begin with Whig writers in the reign of Anne, and unveils the Jacobite Roger North as the first representative of an alternative, more reflective and empirical, tradition. Murray Pittock reminds us that the reason for both the scarcity and importance of Scots in France was that so many Scottish Jacobites stayed at home, and sketches in the context of the 'Highland myth' of Jacobitism. Paul Monod emphasizes once again that the so-called abolition of censorship in 1695 consisted simply of the elimination of the Stationers' Company from the process: a shift from trying to halt authors and printers before publication to punishing them after it. One part of the traditional picture which is only reinforced throughout the whole collection is the consistent folly and incompetence of the exiled James II; it seems that no reappraisal of his cause can do much to rescue the reputation of the man at the heart of it. RONALD HUTTON Bristol TRANSATLANTIC BRETHREN. REv. SAMUEL JONES (1735-1814) AND His FRIENDS. By Hywel M. Davies. Lehigh University Press, Bethlehem, USA: Associated Universities Presses, London, 1995. Pp. 361. £ 38.00. Dr Hywel Davies has already given indications of his capacity as an historian of real ability in a-number of articles published in recent years. He has now moved on to publish his first book on the subject of links between Baptists in North America and their fellow-believers in Britain. It makes a substantial and valuable contribution to the study of the topic. One of its more unusual and refreshing features is that it is a genuinely transatlantic
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