WAR AND PEACE (A.) TREATIES OF PEACE. IT is probable that we are still distant from the days when the fiery fight is heard no more," but it is nevertheless no unprofitable task to consider the basis upon which Peace shal. be made. It would be an historical tragedy of the first order if the fruits of victory were to be cozened from us by a successful German peace offensive. Knowledge alone can avert such a catastrophe, and such knowledge it is the function of history and political science to supply. It is reasonable to suppose that the new peace will not differ in most of its essential characteristics from the peaces of the past. History records treaties that failed to secure their objects, like the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, or of Amiens in 1802; but on the other hand most of the Great Wars have either effectively secured, or definitely failed to secure the objects for which they were waged. In either case the effect has been permanent, and the result decisive. The lessons of these treaties-the failures no less than the successes-are the most essential groundwork for any attempt to lay down the lines of a future treaty. The *two volumes before us are excellently conceived with that object in view. They are in no sense competitive, but rather complementary to one another. The Oxford volume forming one of the History of the Belligerents series is confined to the European treaties of the nineteenth century. Its scope is mainly historical. It gives the texts of all the chief treaties in full-an invaluable aid to the student who has usually to search for these documents in bulky and expensive volumes. Each treaty or set of treaties is prefaced by a plain and straightforward historical introduction, and an useful series of sketch maps materially assists the study of the text. The preliminary chapter on the conclusion of treaties in its technical aspect is of great value. It contains a fund of information as to details of diplomatic practice and the procedure in negotiations that can hardly be found else- where in a form so concise and accessible. On the other hand a discussion of the general law applicable to treaties is not attempted, except in so far as Sir Erie Richards' introduction deals with the question of the effect of war upon treaties. For the most part also the documents reprinted are confined to treaties of peace, and the text to the exposition of their historical antecedents. The treaties of a juristic character, such as the Geneva and Hague conventions, which call for different treatment are advisedly omitted. The essay of Sir Walter (now Lord) Phillimore is more definitely constructive. He begins with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 as marking the period when the system of international relations in its modern form acquired stability, and when the principle of the Balance of Power was recognised as the basis of such stability. No texts are given, and diplomatic practice is not discussed, but the treaties are examined with the avowed object of deducing *(a). Three Centuries of Treaties of Peace and their Teaching," by Sir W. G. F. Phillimore, Bart., late Lord Justice of Appeal. London (John Murray). 7s. 6d. Pp. 227. (b). The Great European Treaties of the Nineteenth Century." Edited by Sir Augustus Oakes and R. B. Movat. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. 7s. 6d. Pp.403. from them, first, the conditions that are essential for the conclusion of a satisfactory and lasting peace, and secondly the way in which these conditions should be applied in general principle to the conclusion of the peace to which the world is now looking forward. The book is in fact a reasoned discussion of war aims based upon the lessons of the past, in which the principles are clearly laid down, and the difficulties fearlessly faced. The learned author begins by formulating nine maxims which should be considered as the foundations of treaties, and points out in the course of the work the dangers and difficulties that have arisen from the neglect of them. Some of these maxims need only to be stated to command general assent, at any rate outside the regions where the dogmas of militarism and Real-politik are treated as the only foundations of international relations, but historical examples prove that the necessity for stating them clearly is none the less pressing on that account. Others are equally acceptable in theory but extremely difficult to carry out in practice. The question of a "natural" frontier, well-marked, strong for defence, and yet not tempting to aggression is an instance. It would indeed be a happy condition of affairs if all States composed of peoples desirous of living as one nation," (the second maxim), were geographically situated within such boundaries or any- thing approaching them, but unfortunately for the peace of the world the actual condition of affairs is far otherwise. The case of Ulster has made us realise only too well within the last few years the difficulty of drawing a purely administrative boundary between antagonistic peoples apart from any military considerations. In truth a large proportion of boundaries must be a compromise between conflicting principles. The technicalities of boundary making are nevertheless of high importance, because if the ideal is unattainable it is possible to avoid the worst a modest aim that to say the least of it has not always been realised. The final chapter on the general conclusions is of the highest interest. Lord Phillimore is emphatically of opinion that the neutralisation of states and the erection of Buffer States are alike useless. There is a great deal to be said for this view, but it is possible to hold that these conceptions have not entirely outlived their period of usefulness. On the other hand the experiences of a world war have shown that the whole idea of neutrality can never be restored to its ancient basis. One can agree absolutely with the statement that- Guarantees are idle things. Generally, the security for future Peace does not lie in promises or stipulations, but in the establish- nemt of a just and stable order." Into the details of the territorial resettlement it is im- possible now to enter; much must depend upon future circumstances that we cannot yet foresee but it is ex- ceedingly profitable to study the actual and most compli- cated questions involved, and at least to formulate a set of principles to be carried into effect if it is at all possible to do so. And it is just this process that Lord Phillimore enables his readers to carry out, whether they can accept all his conclusions or not. For this all thanks are due to him. H.J.R.
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